In the field of drug discovery, researchers typically begin the process by identifying a target molecule and validating it as a major cause of disease. Once they find a suitable target, researchers must then begin the search for a promising drug molecule, often referred to as a “lead compound.” Following are three ways scientists find lead compounds:
- Nature: One of the oldest sources of medicinal compounds, nature plays host to a wide range of bioactive substances. While the large majority of nature-based research has focused on the medicinal properties of plants, researchers have discovered promising compounds in bacteria and mold.
- Biotechnology: Over the past few decades, scientists have discovered many ways to genetically engineer living systems and cause them to produce specific biological molecules.
- High-throughput screening: One of the most common drug discovery methods, high-throughput screening can test a large volume of compounds against the target molecule in a relatively short period of time.
As Johnson & Johnson’s sales in the consumer and medical devices/diagnostics sectors have dipped, the company has experienced significant increases in its pharmaceutical sales. Johnson & Johnson maintains a strong portfolio of high-performing drugs, including immunology drugs like Simponi and Stelara, the hepatitis C treatment Olysio, and two oncology drugs, Velcade and Zytiga. Analysts predict that these five drugs will help drive Johnson & Johnson’s estimated 5 percent growth in overall revenue for the next year.
Zytiga will make an especially critical contribution to this growth rate. The blockbuster prostate cancer drug surpassed Velcade as Johnson & Johnson’s top-selling oncology drug, and it experienced a 48.8 percent revenue increase in its quarter-one revenues. In the first quarter, Zytiga generated $512 million, over $100 million more than Velcade. Additionally, sales of Zytiga jumped 77 percent from 2012 to 2013, resulting in $1.7 billion for the pharmaceutical giant. The drug does face upcoming competition, however, from such therapies as Medivation and Astellas’ Xtandi. Investors will be watching closely as the companies report on these drugs’ quarterly sales.
One of the most studied and least-understood psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia manifests itself in a variety of ways, and researchers have yet to identify a single underlying cause. Researchers have, however, identified three factors that correlate with the onset of schizophrenia.
Family history: One of the most reliable risk factors of schizophrenia, family history has been shown to correlate strongly with schizophrenia diagnoses. A child of a parent with schizophrenia has a 10 percent chance of developing the disorder, while an individual whose identical twin has been diagnosed with schizophrenia has a 40 percent to 65 percent chance.
Chemical factors: In recent years, schizophrenia research has focused on the role of neurotransmitters. In particular, research has shown that schizophrenia may be related to imbalances in compounds such as glutamate and dopamine.
Physical abnormality: With the arrival of advanced neuroimaging techniques, researchers have discovered that people with schizophrenia often have abnormal brain structures, such as larger ventricles, less gray matter, and abnormal activity in certain areas.
Seasonal influenza, which is especially prevalent during the fall and winter months, affects millions of people, infecting as much as one-fifth of the American population annually. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the most common way for flu germs to spread is via respiratory secretions: the droplets of fluid expelled when someone coughs or sneezes. Contact with these droplets can result in infection from as far as 6 feet away. In some cases, an individual can contract the flu virus by touching an object handled by a contagious person and then touching his or her own mouth or nose.
Individuals with flu should make every attempt to avoid spreading it to others by staying home while they are ill. A generally healthy adult is able to transmit the virus to others a full day before displaying any symptoms. In addition, he or she may continue to be contagious for as much as one week afterward.
To prevent the spread of flu, remember to disinfect surfaces that an infected person has touched. Thoroughly wash dishes used by anyone who is sick with flu, and launder linens and towels before another person uses them. To avoid contracting flu, children and adults should wash their hands often and avoid touching their mouths and noses, especially when they are in well-frequented public places.
Furthermore, the CDC advises the influenza vaccine, targeted to the current season’s strain of the virus, for everyone 6 months of age and older, unless an individual’s physician recommends otherwise.
Fibromyalgia, a musculoskeletal condition characterized by increased sensitivity to pain throughout the body, is often associated with sleep disorders, lowered energy levels, and difficulty remembering. Experts believe the condition affects some 5 million American adults, women more frequently than men. Though patients living with fibromyalgia can often find pain relief with analgesic medications, the condition can become a chronic problem.
While no researcher has yet posited a definitive cause for fibromyalgia, several theories have developed. Some experts believe that the condition results from a chemical or endocrine problem affecting the brain’s neurotransmitting system, from nerve cells made overly sensitive to pain, or from an emotionally traumatic event.
Decreased levels of the calm-inducing neurotransmitter serotonin may result in heightened sensitivity to painful stimuli, as may an excess amount of substance P, which boosts the body’s amplification of painful sensations. In addition, some theorists have pointed to lower levels of human growth hormone as a contributor to the development of fibromyalgia.
In addition, certain infections may be at the root of the condition, or may initiate flare-ups. Many researchers have proposed that fibromyalgia has a genetic component, as the condition does tend to occur in family members. However, most agree that the likeliest scenario involves several factors in combination.
Overactive bladder, often called “urge incontinence,” results from spasms of the urinary tract muscles. The risk of developing OAB increases with pregnancy and excess weight gain. It can be associated with certain neurological conditions, lowered kidney function, and tumors, or it can occur as a side effect of particular medications. There may additionally be a genetic component involved.
People with overactive bladder experience sudden urges to void urine, and over time, the condition can lead to issues with incontinence. Sometimes, the urge to urinate immediately results in an episode of incontinence. People with OAB tend to urinate frequently, often eight or more times in the course of a day. They may experience nocturia, which causes them to awaken several times during sleep in order to urinate.
Overactive bladder should not be viewed as an inescapable part of growing older. Effective treatments exist that can cause symptoms to lessen or disappear. Your physician may recommend Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor.
After instruction from a medical professional, it may take a month or two to achieve results. Losing weight, and learning to time and schedule fluid intake and urination, may also help. Intermittent catheterization may be an option, or a doctor may recommend a regimen of bladder training. In addition, a wide variety of medications is available to relax the bladder and reduce the urge that leads to incontinence.
Prostate cancer is the second-most prevalent form of cancer to affect men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that over the course of 2014, nearly a quarter of a million men will develop the disease, and that tens of thousands will die. However, thanks to treatments such as Zytiga, a highly effective pharmaceutical treatment now offered through Johnson & Johnson, most men no longer die from prostate cancer. Well over 2 million men are alive today after suffering from the disease at some time in their lives.
Prostate cancer can develop slowly, and may confine itself within the prostate gland, requiring little or no treatment. More aggressive types of the disease, however, may progress rapidly, metastasizing to other parts of the body. The earlier the disease is identified and treated, the greater the chances of survival.
There may be no symptoms in the early stages. Some physicians recommend routine prostate cancer screenings, although there is debate regarding risks and benefits of this practice. Symptoms of more advanced prostate cancer may include blood in semen or urine, difficulties with urination, pain in the pelvic region or in the lower back, and erectile dysfunction. Anyone who believes he may be developing prostate cancer should consult his physician.
Small biotechnology companies form a key part of the biotech industry as they pursue breakthrough therapies that drive acquisitions by large firms. A January 2014 article in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News discusses how small biotech firms may be able to develop drugs for much less money than previously estimated.
The article focuses on what are called “virtual companies,” firms that exist solely to fund the development of a particular drug and that outsource all of their labor. Virtual companies avoid the overhead associated with maintaining labs and manufacturing facilities. The article uses a theoretical situation, in which a drug being developed by a virtual company is discovered in trials funded by the National Institutes of Health, and then uses numbers from a 2010 survey of drug development costs to postulate that bringing a drug to market might cost as little as $242 million. To view the full article, including a discussion of weaknesses in the previous study’s methods and reasons costs could amount to as little as half of that $242 million, visit http://bit.ly/1eUZ7yG.
In late 2013, the American Marketing Association’s DocSIG, a special-interest group catering to the needs of students pursuing PhDs, placed Smeal College of Business’ Department of Marketing second on a list ranking research productivity over the last four years. The list was compiled based on publications in AMA journals, including studies published in the Journal of Marketing Research and the Journal of Marketing. DocSIG also compiled rankings of schools based on research appearing in top journals published by organizations other than the AMA, including Marketing Science and the Journal of Consumer Research. On that list, Smeal College of Business placed 13th.
Individual Smeal faculty members made lists of top researchers as well. The school’s Irving & Irene Bard Professor of Marketing ranked eighth on the AMA-only list, and two of its assistant professors earned rankings of 19 and 26, respectively, in the same survey. Two Smeal professors also earned top-50 rankings in DocSIG’s broader report.
Worldwide, the biotechnology, biological sciences, and pharmaceuticals industry produced well in excess of $1 trillion in revenue during the calendar year 2011. Based on this figure, compound annual growth in the industry performed at a rate of 6.7 percent during the years 2007 to 2011. Overall, experts advocate an attitude of cautious optimism for the sector. Many point to years of development and positive trends in markets, modified by new challenges such as expiring patents, competition from generic products, increased government regulation, and pressures to modify pricing.
A set of historical trends and projections for the years 2010 through 2017, issued in 2013 by the international market data group Research and Markets, predicted significant growth for the biotech and bio-agriculture industries over the defined period.
Trends affecting the biotech industry on a global scale include an aging world population that will result in increased demand for health-related products and services. In a related development, the world’s people are altering their eating habits in ways that tend to produce higher rates of chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart trouble. Other forces at play within the industry include expansion of government-supported health initiatives to cover more individuals, thus expanding the market; a push to step up marketing to the developing world; and rapid technological development.
Challenges to the biotechnology segment include many nations’ struggles to contain burgeoning health care costs by imposing price restrictions on manufacturers.